Preparing the database¶
The preparation of the database primarily covers the creation of the
database tables. The commands for the creation are done in
SQL. The code is put into the file
ext_tables.sql, which is located on the top level
of the extension directory.
One of the main purposes of Extbase is to abstract the access of the underlying persistence solution. Thus, you normally won’t get in touch with native SQL-Queries in day-to-day development, especially when you let the kickstarter auto-generate your database tables (have a look at Chapter 10). However, you should fully understand all the peculiarities of your database.
Preparing the tables of the domain objects¶
Let’s have a look at the definition of the database table which will
aggregate the objects of the class
CREATE TABLE tx_sjroffers_domain_model_organization ( uid int(11) unsigned DEFAULT 0 NOT NULL auto_increment, pid int(11) DEFAULT 0 NOT NULL, name varchar(255) NOT NULL, address text NOT NULL, telephone_number varchar(80) NOT NULL, telefax_number varchar(80) NOT NULL, url varchar(80) NOT NULL, email_address varchar(80) NOT NULL, description text NOT NULL, image varchar(255) NOT NULL, contacts int(11) NOT NULL, offers int(11) NOT NULL, administrator int(11) NOT NULL, tstamp int(11) unsigned DEFAULT 0 NOT NULL, crdate int(11) unsigned DEFAULT 0 NOT NULL, deleted tinyint(4) unsigned DEFAULT 0 NOT NULL, hidden tinyint(4) unsigned DEFAULT 0 NOT NULL, sys_language_uid int(11) DEFAULT 0 NOT NULL, l18n_parent int(11) DEFAULT 0 NOT NULL, l18n_diffsource mediumblob NOT NULL, fe_group int(11) DEFAULT 0 NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (uid), KEY parent (pid), );
CREATE TABLE instructs the database to create a new
table’s name is derived from the Extbase convention, which describes that
class names are written in lowercase, retaining the underlines.
ext_tables.sql is executed whenever the
extension is installed. Nevertheless, TYPO3 is smart enough not to
overwrite an existing database table. On the contrary, it deduces the
differences between the new and the existing tables and adds that
The definition of the database table fields
address etc., follows in round brackets. Some of them should
sound familiar since they meet the properties’ names of the class
Organization. However, the Extbase convention is still
present: Field names are written in
lowercase_underscore and are derived
from the property’s name by prefixing every uppercase letter with an
underscore writing the whole construct in lowercase. The
value of the property
address is saved in the field
address. The property
into the field name
However, the table definition contains additional fields with
no correlating property in the class
TYPO3 needs them for providing functionalities like Localization,
Workspaces and Versioning. The according TYPO3-specific fields are:
uid Describes the unique identifier associated with
every record within a database table (unique record
pid Every page within a TYPO3 installation has a unique
page identifier (Page ID or PID). This may be System Folder
(SysFolder) or even used to refer to the Frontend
page of a Content Element.
crdate The UNIX timestamp of the date the record was
created (creation date). This date may differ from
the creation date of the domain object.
tstamp The UNIX timestamp of the date the record was
changed the last time. Most often, this relates to the timestamp the Domain
Model was changed the last time.
deleted When this fields’ value differs from 0, TYPO3
handles its corresponding record as if it was physically deleted. Thus it will show
off neither in the Backend nor in the Frontend. It can be restored by
either setting the field to 0 or more easily be dug out using the
system extension Recycler. Extbase will set this
field whenever a record is deleted in case that this field exists. Additionally,
it holds all the references to other records so that whole
Aggregates may be restored.
hidden The record set won’t show up in the Frontend if
this field’s value differs from 0.
starttime UNIX timestamp when the record first showed
up in the Frontend. Extbase uses this timestamp when it reads the record values from
the database not to create the domain objects before that
endtime UNIX timestamp when the record got “invisible”
in the Frontend (i.e., when its hidden value got non-zero). As well as with
the starttime field, Extbase uses this value when
it reads from the database.
cruser_id The UID of the Backend user who created the
record. Currently, Extbase neither sets nor reads this value. Whenever a
domain object is created in the Frontend, this field is set to 0.
fe_group A list of Frontend-Usergroups that can access
the recordset. The logged-in Frontend-User must at least belong to this
sys_language_uid The language’s UID, which belongs to
this recordset. Languages may be created using the globe at the root of
the page tree.
l18n_parent The UID of the translation source, i.e., the
recordset of the original language (default).
l18n_diffsource A serialized form of the translation
source. This is useful for showing the differences between the original
language and its translation in the Backend.
fields are used by TYPO3 for management of Versioning and
Workspaces. If they are not needed, they may be omitted.
All fields except
pid are optional.
However, we highly recommend creating the fields
endtime to enable proper access control. If the
domain objects are multi-lingual the fields
More information about Localization and Multilingualism can be found in Chapter 9.
The order of the field definitions is arbitrary. Nevertheless, it is recommended to set the fields which are frequently inspected in a SQL-tool like phpMyAdmin at the beginning since they are consequential arranged at the left in the table view and show up without any annoying scrolling.
Every line in a table definition holds various statements. The
field type follows the field’s name. In the following
case, the field
tstamp takes an unsigned Integer number
unsigned). The default value used if no value is
given when the record is created is the number 0 (
The field value mustn’t be NULL (
NOT NULL), and a comma separates the field
tstamp int(11) unsigned DEFAULT '0' NOT NULL,
Note that in the case of the field
tstamp, the field
definition is chosen somewhat awkwardly by TYPO3 since the value 0
corresponds to the UNIX timestamp of the date 1.1.1970 00:00. It would
be better to use the value NULL for the meaning of ‘undefined’ instead
of 0. However, this inconsistency draws through the whole TYPO3 Core.
Thus, it is complicated to correct this weakness.
SQL databases provide various field types. Which type is
chosen for persisting a Domain Property depends on the kind and length of
the value that is to be saved: Text strings are saved as
varchar, their length may be set in
round brackets. Whereas
char may hold up to 255 characters
with a fixed size,
varchar fields can hold up to 65.535 Bytes
as well as fields containing the type
text. But record sets
cannot be grouped or sorted by fields with type
text, and they
cannot have a standard value. Nonetheless, the type should still be
chosen if grouping, sorting, and setting a standard value can be resigned.
TYPO3 is usually used with the database engine MySQL, which
provides the developer with the field types
Always spare memory, but, on the other side, don’t be too penurious with Strings since their values are simply cut-off when exceeding the datatype range. This concludes with bugs and errors that are hard to find.
Integers are meant to have the field types
bigint. If working with a MySQL database,
mediumint are available. All those integer field types differ
only in the number range for which they can be used (see table
Floating-point types can be stored in fields with the type
describes a fixed-size field type. E.g., a field defined with
decimal(6,2) takes a number with 6 digits before and 2 digits
after the comma, the standard value is (10,0). The keyword
numeric is a synonym for
decimal. The type
float takes numbers from
1.79E+308, again, the range may be limited by a number (from
1 to 53) in round brackets.
Besides the already defined field types, some other
types are, however, rather uncommon in the environment of TYPO3.
Examples for those uncommon types are
datetime for date values following the pattern
YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS or
boolean data types for true and false values.
As with field names of
integer types may take ranges as numbers in round
brackets upon their definition, e.g.
int(11). But in
contrast, they do NOT describe the count of digits or Bytes that can be
stored in that field. Instead, the number serves as a hint for SQL
management tools for correctly filling up the field type’s column with
whitespaces. Thus, the fields defined with
int(11) as well
int(3) can store the same value ranges from
+21.474.838.647. It’s still
useful to define
integer data fields with their maximum
count of digits because this befriends the database computing complex
JOIN’s. Thus the rule of thumb is: Always use the maximum
possible value in round brackets when defining
fields (see table 6-1) plus one additional space for the sign value when
using signed numbers.
Table 6-1 sums up all possible use-cases with their recommended data types.
Table 6-1: Comparison of different field types
|What should be saved?||Field type||Field range|
|Character strings, texts||
||max. 255 Bytes **|
|(names, addresses, product descriptions etc.; images that are managed by TYPO3)||
max. n Bytes (up to max. n = 65.553)
max. 65.553 Bytes
max. 16.777.215 Bytes
max. 4.294.967.295 Bytes
(item counts, ages etc.; in TYPO3 as well as dates and boolean properties)
||(saved as string of characters)|
|(amounts of money, measurement values etc.)||
||-1.79E+308 to +1.79E+308 (eventually limited by the precision)|
p = precision
s = scale
n = Number of Bytes resp. Number of spaces in a column (int)
* MySQL only
** The number of signs depends on the text-encoding and may differ from the number of Bytes. E.g., Using text-encoding ISO-8859-1 one Byte contains exactly one character, whereas, in UTF-8, one character is saved in up to 3 Bytes (Multibyte Encoding).
Configure relationships between objects¶
There are many relations between the objects in our Domain that have to be persisted in the database for being able to resolve them at a later time. It depends on the type of relationship how they can be persisted and Extbase distinguishes between several types as already defined in Chapter 5 “Implement Relationships between domain objects”. As a reference to Chapter 5, find here a short summary of the types of relationships:
1:1-Relationship: An offer has exactly one range of time when it is valid (dateRange).
1:n-Relationship: An organization may have several contact persons whereas each contact person is in charge for exactly one organization.
n:1-Relationship: An organization has exactly one administrator, but this administrator may be in charge for several organizations.
m:n-Relationships: An offer may be connected with several categories and on the other hand, one certain category may be attached to several offers.
There are several techniques for persisting those relationships in a Relational Database:
Comma-separated list (Comma-separated values, CSV): In a field of the parent object’s table, the UIDs of their child objects are stored as comma-separated values.
Foreign Keys: The UID of the child object’s table is stored in a field of the parent table or vice versa.
Intermediate Table: For persisting the relationships between two classes, a special table is created - the Intermediate Table. The UID of the parent table, as well as the UID of the child table, is stored as a data set in the Intermediate Table. Additionally, information about assorting, visibility, and access control can be stored. They define the objects’ relationships and not the objects themselves.
Do not store data in the Intermediate Table that concern the Domain. Though TYPO3 supports this (especially in combination with Inline Relational Record Editing (IRRE) but this is always a sign that further improvements can be made to your Domain Model. Intermediate Tables are and should always be tools for storing relationships and nothing else.
Let’s say you want to store a CD with its containing music tracks:
CD -- m:n (Intermediate Table) -- Song. The track number
may be stored in a field of the Intermediate Table. However, the
track should be stored as a separate domain object, and the connection be
CD -- 1:n -- Track -- n:1 -- Song.
Not all combinations of relationship types and their technical persistence are sane. Table 6-2 lists all combinations that are y possible and useful, (y) technically possible but rarely sensible, no either technically impossible or not supported.
Combination of relationship type and technical storage
Thus, every type of relationship has its own recommended form of persistence that will be explained subsequently. In case of a 1:1-relationship the UID of the child object will be saved in the Foreign Key field of the parent object:
CREATE TABLE tx_sjroffers_domain_model_offer( # … date_range int(11) DEFAULT '0' NOT NULL, # … );
The default values of ‘0’ (or the
NULL values if they were explicitly allowed)
stand for “The dateRange has not yet been assigned.”.
Later on, Extbase computes the
DateRange-object from the
1:n relationship, there are two possibilities.
uid value is stored as a comma-separated list in
the parent object field. Or every child object contains the parental
uid in a foreign key field. TYPO3 mostly uses the comma-separated list in its
Core. Still, we discourage that solution because of its drawbacks:
Comma-separated fields complicate the search and hinder the
indexation in the database. Furthermore, the creation and deletion of child
objects are complex and time-consuming. Thus, using comma-separated lists
for modeling relationships should only be used with database tables that
cannot be altered in their structure (e.g., external sources, the
TYPO3-Core). We highly recommend the latter method, which stores a Foreign
Key in the child object’s table. In TYPO3, the parental object’s
table holds a separate value for counting the corresponding
child objects’ sum. Consecutively, we list the definition of the relationship
between the organization and its offers of the class
\MyVendor\SjrOffers\Domain\Model\Organization. This will later be
filled with instances of the class
CREATE TABLE tx_sjroffers_domain_model_organization ( # … offers int(11) NOT NULL, # … );
The definition of the table
tx_sjroffers_domain_model_offer holds the field
organization as a Foreign Key.
CREATE TABLE tx_sjroffers_domain_model_offer ( # … organization int(11) NOT NULL, # … );
Extbase stores the relationship between
and the offer as a
1:1-relationship. This can be taken as
advantage by adding the property
organization to the class
\MyVendor\SjrOffers\Domain\Model\Offer. Consequently, it will be
filled with an instance of the class
\MyVendor\SjrOffers\Domain\Model\Organization and can therefore
be used as a backreference from the offer to its corresponding
n:1 and the
1:n are similar to
each other. It is just a matter of perspective. Concerning the persistence
of them, one is served with two possibilities. Either the relationship can
be stored as Foreign Key in the parent object or an Intermediate Table can
be used, which is described consecutively. We prefer the Foreign Key method
because it is easier to manage.
The fourth kind of relationship, which is known by Extbase, is the
m:n-relationship. This uses an Intermediate Table for
persistence and stores the uid of the parent object as well as the uid of
the child object. The table definitions for a relationship between offer
and category are as follows:
CREATE TABLE tx_sjroffers_domain_model_offer ( # ... categories int(11) NOT NULL, # ... ); CREATE TABLE tx_sjroffers_offer_category_mm ( uid int(10) unsigned DEFAULT '0' NOT NULL auto_increment, pid int(11) DEFAULT '0' NOT NULL, uid_local int(10) unsigned NOT NULL, uid_foreign int(10) unsigned NOT NULL, sorting int(10) unsigned NOT NULL, sorting_foreign int(10) unsigned NOT NULL, tstamp int(10) unsigned NOT NULL, crdate int(10) unsigned NOT NULL, hidden tinyint(3) unsigned DEFAULT '0' NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (uid), KEY parent (pid) );
tx_sjroffers_domain_model_offer holds a field
categories as a counter (and as a counter-part to the
categories property). The Intermediate Table holds the field
uid_local that takes the
uid of an offer as well
as a field
uid_foreign for the uid of the category. Using the
values in the fields
Extbase evaluates the order of the objects in the
sorting orders the
categories from the perspective of an offer,
evaluates the order of the offers from the perspective of a
The name of the Intermediate Table can be chosen freely. However,
the following convention is recommended:
For now, we have proper SQL definitions of the Domain’s tables for each kind of relationship. In the next step, we configure the representation of the database tables and their interaction with the Backend.