Since version 6.2 the TYPO3 CMS core includes an enumeration implementation. An enumeration should be used if you have a fixed list of values and it should always be prefered to just pure constants. That is because constants cannot be deprecated but values of an enumeration can.

How To Use Enumerations

Create an Enumeration

To create a new enumeration you have to extend the class TYPO3\CMS\Core\Type\Enumeration. Values are defined as constants in your implementation. The names of the constants must be given in uppercase.

A special, optional constant __default represents the default value of your enumeration if it is present. In that case the enumeration can be instantiated without a value and will be set to the default.


class LikeWildcard extends \TYPO3\CMS\Core\Type\Enumeration
   const __default = self::BOTH;

   /** @var int Do not use any wildcard */
   const NONE = 0;

   /** @var int Use wildcard on left side */
   const LEFT = 1;

   /** @var int Use wildcard on right side */
   const RIGHT = 2;

   /** @var int Use wildcard on both sides */
   const BOTH = 3;

Use an Enumeration

You always have to use the Enumeration::cast() method for instantiation.

((The ::cast() itself calls the constructor of the enumeration if it's not always an instance of the enum.))((make sentence clearer!))

That allows to deprecate enumeration values or do special value casts before finding a suitable value in the enumeration.


$likeWildcardLeft = LikeWildcard::cast(LikeWildcard::LEFT);

$valueFromDatabase = 1;

// will cast the value automatically to an enumeration.
// Result is true.

$enumerationWithValueFromDb = LikeWildcard::cast($valueFromDatabase);

// Remember to always use ::cast and never use the constant directly


If the enumeration is instantiated with an invalid value an TYPO3\CMS\Core\Type\Exception\InvalidEnumerationValueException is thrown. This exception must be catched and you have to decide what the appropriate behavior should be.


Always be prepared to handle exceptions when instantiating enumerations from user defined values!


try {
   $foo = LikeWildcard::cast($valueFromPageTs);
} catch (\TYPO3\CMS\Core\Type\Exception\InvalidEnumerationValueException) {
   $foo = LikeWildcard::cast(LikeWildcard::NONE);

Implement custom logic

Sometimes it not only makes sense to validate a value but to also have custom logic as well..

For example, the TYPO3\CMS\Core\Versioning\VersionState enumeration contains values of version states. Some of the values indicate that the state is a "placeholder". This logic can be implemented by a custom method:

class VersionState extends \TYPO3\CMS\Core\Type\Enumeration
   const __default = self::DEFAULT_STATE;
   const DEFAULT_STATE = 0;
   const NEW_PLACEHOLDER = 1;
   const MOVE_PLACEHOLDER = 3;
   const MOVE_POINTER = 4;

    * @return bool
   public function indicatesPlaceholder()
      return (int)$this->__toString() > self::DEFAULT_STATE;

$myVersionState = VersionState::cast($versionStateValue);
if ($myVersionState->indicatesPlaceholder()) {
   echo 'The state indicates that this is a placeholder';