Conditions

There is a possibility of using so called conditions in TypoScript. Conditions are simple control structures, that evaluate to TRUE or FALSE based on some criteria (externally validated) and thereby determine, whether the TypoScript code following the condition and ending where the next condition is found, should be parsed or not.

Examples of a condition could be:

  • Is a usergroup set for the current session?
  • Is it Monday?
  • Is the GET parameter "&language=uk" set?
  • Is it my mother's birthday?
  • Do I feel lucky today?

Of these examples admittedly the first few are the most realistic. In fact they are readily available in the context of TypoScript Templates. But a condition can theoretically evaluate any circumstance and return either TRUE or FALSE which subsequently means the parsing of the TypoScript code that follows.

Where conditions can be used

The detection of conditions is a part of the TypoScript syntax but the validation of the condition content always relies on the context where TypoScript is used. Therefore in plain syntax highlighting (no context) conditions are just highlighted and nothing more. In the context of TypoScript Templates there is a whole section of TSref which defines the syntax of the condition contents for TypoScript Templates. For "Page TSconfig" and "User TSconfig" conditions are implemented as well. Basically they work the same way as conditions in TypoScript templates do, but there are some small differences. For details see the chapter on conditions in TSconfig.

The syntax of conditions

A condition is written on its own line and is detected by [ (square bracket) being the first character on that line:

(Some TypoScript)

[ condition 1 ][ condition 2 ]

(Some TypoScript only parsed if condition 1 or condition 2 are met.)

[GLOBAL]

(Some TypoScript)

As you can see from this example, the line [GLOBAL] also is a condition. It is built into TypoScript and always returns TRUE. The line [ condition 1 ][ condition 2 ] is another condition. If [ condition 1 ][ condition 2 ] is TRUE, then the TypoScript in the middle would be parsed until [GLOBAL] (or [END]) resets the conditions. After that point the TypoScript is parsed for any case again.

Note

The condition line [ condition 1 ][ condition 2 ] conveys the idea of two conditions being set, but from the TypoScript parser point of view the whole line is the condition. It is only when the condition is actually evaluated that the line content gets broken down into smaller units ([ condition 1 ] and [ condition 2 ]) which are individually evaluated and connected by a logical OR before they return the resulting TRUE or FALSE value. (That is all done within the class \TYPO3\CMS\Core\Configuration\TypoScript\ConditionMatching\AbstractConditionMatcher.

Here is an example of some TypoScript (from the context of TypoScript Templates) where another text is output if you are logged in or working locally:

pageObj.10 = TEXT
pageObj.10.value = Hello World
pageObj.10.stdWrap.case = upper

[loginUser = *][IP = 127.0.0.01]
pageObj.20 = TEXT
pageObj.20 {
  value = Only for logged in users or local setup
  stdWrap.case = upper
}

[GLOBAL]
pageObj.30 = TEXT
pageObj.30.value = <hr>

You can now use the Object Browser to actually see the difference in the parsed object tree depending on whether the condition evaluates to TRUE or FALSE (which can be simulated with that module as you can see):

The Object Browser showing different objects depending on whether a condition is set or unset.

Combining conditions

As we saw above two or more tests can be written on the same line and the condition will be TRUE if any of these tests matches. It is also possible to use logical operators, for more complex conditions. The following operators are available:

||
Also available as OR. This is equivalent to the default behaviour but makes it more explicit.
&&
Also available as AND. Takes precedence over || (OR).

The special [ELSE], [END] and [GLOBAL] conditions

The special condition [ELSE] which will return TRUE if the previous condition returned FALSE. To end an [ELSE] condition you can use either [END] or [GLOBAL]. For all three conditions you can also use them in lower case.

Here's an example of using the [ELSE] condition (also in the context of TypoScript Templates):

page.typeNum = 0
page = PAGE
page.10 = TEXT

[loginUser = *]
page.10.value = Logged in

[ELSE]
page.10.value = Not logged in

[END]

page.10.stdWrap.wrap = <strong>|</strong>

Here we have one output text if a user is logged in and another if not. No matter what the text is wrapped in a <strong> tag, because, as we can see, this wrap is added outside of the condition block (e.g. after the [END] condition).

The TypoScript object browser showing the output of an ELSE condition.

The fact that you can "enable" the condition in the TypoScript Object Browser is a facility provided to simulate the outcome of any conditions you insert in a TypoScript Template. Whether or not the conditions validate correctly is only verified by actually getting a (in this example) a logged in user and hitting the site.

Another example could be if you wanted to do something special in case a bunch of conditions is NOT true. There's no negate-character, but you could do this:

[loginUser = *] || [usergroup = 3]
  # Enter nothing here!
[ELSE]
  page.10.value = This text is only displayed if the conditions above are not TRUE!
[END]

Where to insert conditions in TypoScript?

Conditions can be used outside of confinements (curly braces) only!

So, this is valid:

someObject {
   1property = 234
}
[loginUser = *]
someObject {
   2property = 567
}

But this is not valid:

someObject {
   1property = 234
   [loginUser = *]
   2property = 567
}

When parsed with syntax highlighting you will see this error:

Error after having used a condition where it is not allowed.

Clicking on the details link will show the following:

The error details

This means that the line was perceived as a regular definition of TypoScript and not as a condition.

The [GLOBAL] condition

The [GLOBAL] special condition (which resets any previous condition scope) is yet different, in that will be detected at any line except within multiline value definitions.

someObject {
   1property = 234
   [GLOBAL]
   2property = 567
}

But you will still get some errors if you syntax highlight it:

Error after having used a GLOBAL condition at thw wrong place.

The reason for this is that the [GLOBAL] condition aborts the confinement started in the first line resulting in the first error ("... short of 1 end brace(s)"). The second error appears because the end brace is now in excess since the "brace level" was reset by [GLOBAL].

So, in summary; the special [global] (or [GLOBAL]) condition will break TypoScript parsing within braces at any time and return to the global scope (unless entered in a multiline value). This is true for any TypoScript implementation whether other condition types are possible or not. Therefore you can use [GLOBAL] (put on a single line for itself) to make sure that following TypoScript is correctly parsed from the top level. This is normally done when TypoScript code from various records is combined.

Summary

  • Conditions are detected by [ as the first line character (whitespace ignored).
  • Conditions are evaluated in relation to the context where TypoScript is used. They are widely used in TypoScript Templates and can also be used in Page TSconfig or User TSconfig.
  • Special conditions [ELSE], [END] and [GLOBAL] exist.
  • Conditions can be used outside of confinements (curly braces) only. However the [GLOBAL] condition will always break a confinement if entered inside of one.