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# Glossary¶

Bind DN
DN of the LDAP user you will use to connect to the LDAP server.
CN
Common Name, typically the full name for users or the name of a group.
DC
Domain Component. Usually the two last parts of a DN. E.g., dc=example,dc=com.
DIT
Directory Information Tree, a.k.a the naming-context.
DN
Distinguished Name, LDAP “primary key”; not indexed. Used in this extension to relate local users/groups to their LDAP counterpart. This represents the “path to the root” of a node in the DIT. E.g., cn=Robert Smith,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com.
GSSAPI
The Generic Security Service Application Program Interface is an application programming interface (API) for programs to access security services. The GSSAPI is an IETF standard. It does not, by itself, provide any security. Instead, security-service vendors provide GSSAPI implementations. The definitive feature of GSSAPI applications is the exchange of opaque messages (tokens) which hide the implementation detail from the higher-level application.
KDC
A Key Distribution Center is a network service that supplies tickets and temporary sessions keys; or an instance of that service or the host on which it runs. The KDC services both initial ticket and ticket-granting requests. The initial ticket portion is sometimes referred to as the Authentication Server (or service). The ticket-granting ticket portion is sometimes referred to as the ticket-granting server (or service).
Kerberos
Kerberos is an authentication protocol that supports the concept of Single Sign-On (SSO). In the case of HTTP, support for Kerberos is usually provided using the SPNEGO authentication mechanism. Apache does not itself support SPNEGO, but support can be added by means of the mod_auth_kerb authentication module.
LDAP
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. Open, vendor-neutral, industry standard application protocol for accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services.
LDIF
LDAP Data Interchange Format. Standard plain text data interchange format for representing :termLDAP directory content and update requests. LDIF conveys directory content as a set of records, one record for each object (or entry). It also represents update requests, such as Add, Modify, Delete and Rename, as a set of records, one record for each update request.
OU
Organizational Unit.
Principal

A principal is someone or something you authenticate or authenticate to. Types of principals are:

user-principals
Kerberos representation of people sitting at a machine. Example: einstein@EXAMPLE.COM.
service-principals
E.g., Kerberos representation of a web server. Example: HTTP/intranet.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM.
RDN
Relative Distinguished Name. Think of it as the relative path in its parent folder for a given file path. E.g., if /foo/bar/myfile.txt were the DN then myfile.txt would be the RDN.
SPNEGO
Simple and Protected GSSAPI Negotiation Mechanism, often pronounced “spen-go”, is a GSSAPI pseudo-mechanism used by client-server software to negotiate the choice of security technology. SPNEGO is used when a client application wants to authenticate to a remote server, but neither end is sure what authentication protocols the other supports. The pseudo-mechanism uses a protocol to determine what common GSSAPI mechanisms are available, selects one and then dispatches all further security operations to it.
SSO
Single Sign-On is a process that permits a user to access multiple services after going through user authentication (i.e., loggin in) only once. This involves authentication into all services the user has given permission to, after logging into a primary service. Among other benefits, SSO avoids the monotonous task of confirming identity over and over again through passwords or other authentication systems.