Coding Guidelines

Extbase and Fluid follow the principle of Convention over Configuration (as also FLOW3). That means that many tasks will work automatically if you respect certain naming conventions for classes, files and method names. Furtermore, this principle improves the consistency and readability of your code. Thus it is much easier for extension developers to understand how unknown extensions (based on Extbase) work, because the structure is always the same und common tasks are solved the same way.

With Extbase, Fluid and FLOW3 we set quite an emphasis on the intuitive and logical naming scheme of classes, methods and variables. Our goal is to provide the source code as readable as possible, because the names are already reflecting what the code does. It even happens that we change a name or identifier several times during development for having it intuitive for as many developers as possible.

You will notice that this is a big difference to the previous TYPO3 v4 (where the names are often abbreviated and inconclusive) making the dayly work and understanding of the code much easier.

Generally, classes are written in UpperCamelCase and methods and variables are written in lowerCamelCase. Underscores (_) are only used in class names for the separation of the namespace, in methods and variables they are generally not used. In addition, the name must be detailed and meaningful; abbreviations are to avoid.

Folder structure

Every extension based on Extbase contains certain folders in the main directory:

Classes
Here resides the complete source code for the extension. Only PHP files are allowed, each one containing exacly one class or interface. All classes (or interfaces) are loaded via the autoloader mechanism when needed.
Configuration
Here is the configuration of the extension located, that means flexform configuration, TCA definitions and TypoScript files. Subfolder can be created when they are needed or helpful.
Documentation
Contains the documentation of the extension. The subfolders are named according to the following schema: [name of the document]/[format]/[language]. Therefore you will find the extension manual normally either in the folder Manual/DocBook/en or in Manual/OpenOffice/en/manual.sxw.
Resources

Here there are the static resources of the extension. This means all files which are not PHP files but are necessary for the conduction of the extension. This might be code from libraries, template files, images, css files and so on.

It is distinguished between public (Public/) and private (Private/) resources. In the folder Private/ there is a .htaccess file, which is blocking direct access to non public files.

Resources/Private
Contains non public resources of the extension.
Resources/Public

Contains public resources of the extension.

Within these two folder the authors of the extension can choose the structure freely, but we recommend the following structure:

Resources/Public/Media
This is a good place for images, CSS files or media files, which are delivered directly to the client.
Resources/Private/Templates
Here are the default Fluid templates for the extension (see also chapter 8).
Resources/Private/PHP
Contains PHP code, which is not compatible to the naming conventions like external PHP libraries, procedural code and so on. You need to use require_once manually to include the code. You are free to add additional folders as needed.
Tests
All unit tests are found here. The structure should be the same as in Classes. All test classes should end with Test.
ext_emconf.php
Contains the configuration for the extension manager of TYPO3 like metadata as the name, the description and the author of the extension.
ext_icon.gif
The icon of the extension, which will be visible in the Extension Manager. It should have a size of 18 x 16 px.
ext_localconf.php
In this file there is the configuration of the Frontend Plugins, which are offered by the extension (see appendix B, "Configuration of Frontend Plugins").
ext_tables.php
In this file there is the TCA configuration and the configuration for the backend. For more see appendix B, "Configuration of Frontend Plugins".
ext_tables.sql
This is a file with SQL commands for the definition of the database tables.

File and class names

Class names in Extbase are composed with the following parts:

  1. the vendor prefix. For example, if your name is Example, then this part could be Ex.
  2. the name of the extension in UpperCamelCase. For example, if the extension-key is blog_example, then this part of the classname is BlogExample.
  3. the path within the Classes/ folder down to the folder, where the file containing the class resides.

In table A-1 you see some naming examples for file and class names.

Table A-1: Examples for class names

classname extension key folder
TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Exception extbase extbase/Classes/Exception.php
TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Mvc\Controller\ActionController extbase extbase/Classes/Mvc/Controller/ActionController.php
Ex\BlogExample\Domain\Model\Post blog_example blog_example/Classes/Domain/Model/Post.php

Interfaces end with Interface, for example TYPO3\CMS\Extbase\Mvc\RequestInterface. With abstract classes the last part of the name always begins with Abstract, for example TYPO3\CMSExtbase\Mvc\Controller\AbstractController.