# Database access¶

The TYPO3 database contains all data of backend and frontend users and therefore special care must be taken not to grant unauthorized access.

## Secure passwords and minimum access privileges with MySQL¶

If using MySQL, the privilege system authenticates a (database-)user who connects from the TYPO3 host (which is possibly on the same machine) and associates that user with privileges on a database. These privileges are for example: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, etc.

When creating this user, follow the guidelines for secure passwords. The name of the user should definitely not be root, admin, typo3, etc. You should create a database specific user with limited privileges for accessing this database from TYPO3. Usually this user does not require access to any other databases and the database of your TYPO3 instance should usually only have one associated database user.

MySQL and other database systems provide privileges that apply at different levels of operation. It depends on your individual system and setup which privileges the database user needs (SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE and some more are essential of course) but privileges like LOCK TABLES, FILE, PROCESS, CREATE USER, RELOAD, SHUTDOWN, etc. are in the context of administrative privileges and not required in most cases.

See the documentation of your database system on how to set up database users and access privileges.

## Database not within web document root with SQLite¶

If using SQLite as underlying database, a database is stored in a single file. In TYPO3, its default location is the var/sqlite path of the instance which is derived from environment variable TYPO3_PATH_APP. If that variable is not set which is often the case in not Composer based instances, the database file will end up in the web server accessible document root directory :file:typo3conf/! In such a setup it is important to configure Web servers to not deliver .sqlite files.

## Disallow external access¶

The database server should only be reachable from the server that your TYPO3 installation is running on. Make sure to disable any access from outside of your server or network (settings in firewall rules) and/or do not bind the database server to a network interface.

If you are using MySQL, read the chapter Server Options in the manual and check for the “skip-networking” and “bind-address” options in particular.

phpMyAdmin and similar tools intend to allow the administration of MySQL database servers over the Web. Under certain circumstances, it might be required to access the database “directly”, during a project development phase for example. Tools like phpMyAdmin (also available as a TYPO3 extension by the way) cause extra effort for ongoing maintenance (regular updates of these tools are required to ensure a minimum level of security). If they are not avoidable by any chance, the standalone version with an additional web server’s access authentication (e.g. Apache’s .htaccess mechanism) should be used at least.