Fluid Templates

Before we describe how the static files discussed in the previous section Design Template can be converted into Fluid templates, we should understand what Fluid is and what the main ideas behind this powerful rendering engine are. It is important to point out that the following section is just a quick introduction. Further details about Fluid can be found at the project repository at GitHub for example.

Quick Introduction to Fluid

Like many other templating engines, Fluid reads template files, processes them and replaces certain variables and specific tags with dynamic content. The result is a fully working website with a clean and valid HTML output. Dynamic elements are automatically updated as required. Navigation menus are a typical example for this type of content. A menu exists on all pages across the entire website. Whenever pages are added, deleted or renamed, the menu items change.

Fluid takes modern templating a step further. By using ViewHelpers, developers can implement complex functionality and therefore extend the original functionality of Fluid to their heart's content. ViewHelpers are built in the programming language PHP. Having said that, website integrators or editors are not required to learn or understand these (this is the responsibility of a software developer). Integrators only need to apply them -- and this is as easy as adding an HTML tag such as <image.../> to an HTML file.

More than 80 ViewHelpers are shipped with the TYPO3 core already. They enable integrators and web developers to use translations of variables, generate forms and dynamic links, resize images, embed other HTML files and even implement logical functions such as if ... then ... else .... An overview of the available ViewHelpers and how to apply them can be found in the Fluid ViewHelper Documentation.

Directory Structure

Fluid requires a specific directory structure to store the template files. If you are working through this tutorial now, this is a perfect time to create the first set of folders of the sitepackage extension. The initial directory can be named site_package/, which we assume is located on your local machine. You can also choose a different name such as "site_example" or "site_clientname", but this tutorial uses "site_package".

The aforementioned folders for Fluid are all located as sub-directories of a folder called Resources/. Therefore, create the directory structure as listed below.

└── Resources
    ├── Private
    │   ├── Language
    │   ├── Layouts
    │   │   └── Page
    │   ├── Partials
    │   │   └── Page
    │   └── Templates
    │       └── Page
    └── Public
        ├── Css
        ├── Images
        └── JavaScript

The Public/ directory branch is self-explanatory: it contains folders such as Css/, Images/ and JavaScript/. All files in these folders will be delivered to the user (website visitors) as they are. These are static files which are not modified by TYPO3 at all before they are sent to the user.

The Private/ directory with its four sub-folders Language/, Layouts/, Partials/ and Templates/ in contrast, require some explanation.

Folders under 'Private/'


HTML files, which build the overall layout of the website, are stored in the Layouts/ folder. Typically this is only one construct for all pages across the entire website. Pages can have different layouts of course, but page layouts do not belong into the Layout/ directory. They are stored in the Templates/ directory (see below). In other words, the Layouts/ directory should contain the global layout for the entire website with elements which appear on all pages (e.g. the company logo, navigation menu, footer area, etc.). This is the skeleton of your website.


The most important fact about HTML files in the Templates/ directory has been described above already: this folder contains layouts, which are page- specific. Due to the fact that a website usually consists of a number of pages and some pages possibly show a different layout than others (e.g. number of columns), the Templates/ directory may contain one or multiple HTML files.


The directory called Partials/ may contain small snippets of HTML template files. "Partials" are similar to templates, but their purpose is to represent small units, which are perfect to fulfil recurring tasks. A good example of a partial is a specially styled box with content that may appear on several pages. If this box would be part of a page layout, it would be implemented in one or more HTML files inside the Templates/ directory. If an adjustment of the box is required at one point in the future, this would mean that several template files need to be updated. However, if we store the HTML code of the box as a small HTML snippet into the Partials/ directory, we can include this snippet at several places. An adjustment only requires an update of the partial and therefore in one file only.

The use of partials is optional, whereas files in the Layouts/ and Templates/ directories are mandatory for a typical sitepackage extension.

The sitepackage extension described in this tutorial focuses on the implementation of pages, rather than specific content elements. Therefore, folders Layouts/, Templates/ and Partials/ all show a sub- directory Page/.


The directory Language/ may contain .xlf files that are used for the localization of labels and text strings (frontend as well as backend) by TYPO3. This topic is not strictly related to the Fluid template engine and is documented in section Internationalization and Localization.

Implement template files

Based on the facts explained above, it should be easy to copy the static files from the Design Template into the appropriate folders of the site package directory structure.

The custom CSS file, as well as the custom JavaScript file, are files which will be maintained by a developer and never modified by TYPO3 at all. The same applies to the logo. However, TYPO3 may create a modified copy of the image, but should never manipulate the original image file (the "source"). Therefore, all three files can be classified as static and copied to the Public/ folder as follows.

  • site_package/Resources/Public/Css/website.css

  • site_package/Resources/Public/JavaScript/website.js

  • site_package/Resources/Public/Images/logo.png

As discussed before, the Bootstrap and jQuery files should be ignored for the time being. This leaves us with the index.html file, more precisely with the <body>-part of that file.

Due to the fact that this file needs to be rendered and enriched with dynamic content from the CMS, it can not be static and the content of this file will not be sent to the user directly. Therefore, this file should be stored somewhere inside the Resources/Private/ directory. The question about the exact sub-directory pops up though: is Resources/Private/Layouts/Page/ or Resources/Private/Templates/Page/ the perfect fit?

In our case, directory Resources/Private/Templates/Page/ is the correct folder, because this is the entry point for all page templates, despite the fact that our index.html file in fact implements the layout of the entire site. Therefore, the index.html file gets copied into Resources/Private/Templates/Page/ and renamed to Default.html (in order to visualize that this file represents the layout of a default page).

As a result, we end up with the following structure.

└── Resources
    ├── Private
    │   ├── Language
    │   ├── Layouts
    │   │   └── Page
    │   ├── Partials
    │   │   └── Page
    │   └── Templates
    │       └── Page
    │           └── Default.html
    └── Public
        ├── Css
        │   └── website.css
        ├── Images
        │   └── logo.png
        └── JavaScript
            └── website.js

It is important to note that at this point in time the sitepackage extension contains four files only: Default.html, website.css, logo.png and website.js. The rest are empty directories for now.

The point is that TYPO3 follows the convention over configuration principle. This is a software design paradigm to decrease the number of decisions that a web developer is required to make. Simply learn and follow the conventions (e.g. that the path should be Resources/Private/Templates/Page/) and the development will be smooth, easy and straight forward. In addition, if another web developer (e.g. one of your colleagues) looks at your sitepackage extension, they know the locations and naming of files. This reduces development time significantly, e.g. if an issue needs to be investigated or a change should be implemented.

Furthermore, you might want to consider technologies such as Sass, SCSS and TypeScript for improved productivity and maintainability of your style sheets and JavaScript code. For the sake of simplicity, this tutorial uses the basic implementation of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and JavaScript files.

The page layout file

As described before, a typical static index.html file contains a <head> and a <body> section, but we only need to focus on the <body>. Open file site_package/Resources/Private/Templates/Page/Default.html in your favorite text editor and remove all lines before the starting <body> tag and after the closing </body> tag. Then, remove these two lines, too. As a result, your Default.html may now be empty. In that case, you can use the following example based on the Bootstrap Jumbotron. If using your own layout template, your Default.html now contains only the HTML code inside the body.

So, let's assume it contains something like the following HTML code:

 1<nav class="navbar navbar-expand-md navbar-dark bg-dark fixed-top">
 2    <a class="navbar-brand" href="#">Navbar</a>
 3    <button aria-controls="navbarsExampleDefault"
 4            aria-expanded="false"
 5            aria-label="Toggle navigation"
 6            class="navbar-toggler"
 7            data-target="#navbarsExampleDefault"
 8            data-toggle="collapse"
 9            type="button"
10    >
11        <span class="navbar-toggler-icon"></span>
12    </button>
13    <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarsExampleDefault">
14        <ul class="navbar-nav mr-auto">
15            <li class="nav-item active">
16                <a class="nav-link" href="#">
17                    Home
18                </a>
19            </li>
20        </ul>
21    </div>
24<main role="main">
25    <div class="jumbotron">
26        <div class="container">
27            <h1 class="display-3">Hello, world!</h1>
28            <p> ... </p>
29        </div>
30    </div>
31    <div class="container">
32        <div class="row">
33            <div class="col-12 col-md-6">
34                <h2>Main Content</h2>
35                <p> ... </p>
36            </div>
37            <div class="col-12 col-md-4">
38                <h2>Sidebar Content</h2>
39                <p> ... </p>
40            </div>
41        </div>
42    </div>

In case you have worked with the Bootstrap library before, you will quickly realize that this is a simplified version of the well-known template called Bootstrap Jumbotron. The first section creates a mobile responsive navigation menu (<nav> ... </nav>) and the second section a container for the content (<main> ... </main>). Inside the content area we see a full-width section (<div class="jumbotron"> ... </div>) and a simple container with two columns.

The code above misses a few lines at the end, which include some JavaScript files such as jQuery and Bootstrap. You are advised to remove these line from the Resources/Private/Templates/Page/Default.html file, too.

Due to the fact that the "jumbotron" elements could be used on several pages (page layouts) across the entire website, we should move this part to a partial. Create a new file named Jumbotron.html inside directory site_package/Resources/Private/Partials/Page/ and copy the approriate six lines (starting from <div class="jumbotron">) into it. Make sure the file name reads exactly as stated above with upper case "J" as the first character.

Now, remove the lines from file Resources/Private/Templates/Page/Default.html and replace them with the following single line:

<f:render partial="Jumbotron" />

Congratulations -- you just applied your first ViewHelper! HTML tags starting with <f:...> are typically core ViewHelpers in Fluid. The tag <f:render> is the Render-ViewHelper, which (as the name suggests) renders the content of a section or partial. In our case it is the latter, because of the partial="..." argument. Note: do not append .html here. HTML is the default format and as a convention, the ViewHelper automatically knows the file name and its location: Partials/Page/Jumbotron.html.

Let us also move the navigation part into the file Partials/Page/Navigation/MainNavigation.html. As the navigation will contain dynamic parts we forward all variables as arguments:

<f:render partial="Navigation/MainNavigation.html" arguments="{_all}"/>

The file Default.html should now look like this:

 1<f:render partial="Navigation/MainNavigation.html" arguments="{_all}"/>
 3<main role="main">
 4    <f:render partial="Jumbotron" />
 5    <div class="container">
 6        <div class="row">
 7            <div class="col-12 col-md-6">
 8                <h2>Main Content</h2>
 9                <p> ... </p>
10            </div>
11            <div class="col-12 col-md-4">
12                <h2>Sidebar Content</h2>
13                <p> ... </p>
14            </div>
15        </div>
16    </div>

At this point, we have implemented an (optional) partial and a page layout template. Keep the file Resources/Private/Templates/Page/Default.html open in your text editor, because we need to make one more small adjustment.

As described above, files inside the Templates/ directory are page-specific layouts. An additional component allows web developers to build the overall layout (the skeleton) of the website: this is an HTML file in the Resources/Private/Layouts/Page/ folder that we name Default.html, too. Before we create this file, we need to tell our page layout template (Resources/Private/Templates/Page/Default.html) which website template it should use:

 1<f:layout name="Default" />
 2<f:section name="Main">
 3    <f:render partial="Navigation/MainNavigation.html" arguments="{_all}"/>
 5    <main role="main">
 6        <f:render partial="Jumbotron" />
 7        <div class="container">
 8            <div class="row">
 9                <div class="col-12 col-md-6">
10                    <h2>Main Content</h2>
11                    <p> ... </p>
12                </div>
13                <div class="col-12 col-md-4">
14                    <h2>Sidebar Content</h2>
15                    <p> ... </p>
16                </div>
17            </div>
18        </div>
19    </main>

The updated template file shows two additional lines at the top (<f:layout> and <f:section>) and an additional line at the bottom (the closing </f:section> tag). The Layout-ViewHelper refers to the "Default" website layout file, which we will create in the next step. The Section-ViewHelper simply wraps the page template code we created before and therefore defines a section named "Main".

The website layout file

Now, let's implement the website layout file. First, we create a new file Default.html inside the directory site_package/Resources/Private/Layouts/Page/ and add the following line:

<f:render section="Main" />

Surprisingly, that is all. This line instructs Fluid to render the section "Main", which we have implemented in the page layout template file Resources/Private/Templates/Page/Default.html.

However, we will do an additional step. The navigation menu will be shown on all pages across the entire website. Therefore, it can be part of the global website layout. Therefore, file Resources/Private/Layouts/Page/Default.html is a suitable destination.

Move the <f:render partial="Navigation/MainNavigation.html" arguments="{_all}"/> part from file Resources/Private/Templates/Page/Default.html to Resources/Private/Layouts/Page/Default.html as shown here:

1<f:render partial="Navigation/MainNavigation.html" arguments="{_all}"/>
2<f:render section="Main" />

Do not forget to remove the line from the Resources/Private/Templates/Page/Default.html file. If you do not remove them, the menu would appear twice in the frontend.