The class autoloader takes care of finding classes in TYPO3.
\TYPO3\CMS\Core\Utility\GeneralUtility::makeInstance() is a generic way
throughout Core and extensions to create objects. It takes care of singleton
and XCLASS handling.
When dependent services are injected via Dependency Injection, there is no need for
Injecting a different object is done by configuration - that's what
dependency injection is for.
A developer can instantiate classes using
makeInstance() - if dependency
injection cannot be used. There are some situations where
new is used
makeInstance(), effectively dropping especially the direct ability
Data transfer objects are often created with
new. A good example are PSR-14 events: The calling class creates a data transfer object that is hand over to the consumer. These DTOs must never be changed by an extension, since they are a contract both caller and consumer must stick to. They are thus created using
newto prevent XCLASSing.
Structures with a dedicated API that allows own implementations on a configuration level sometimes do not use
makeInstance: Many Core constructs come with an API to allow custom classes by dedicated configuration. Those implement a factory pattern to deal with this. An example is the PSR-15 middleware stack.
There is one autoloader used, the one of Composer. No matter if you run TYPO3 in Composer mode or not (legacy mode), TYPO3 uses the Composer autoloader to resolve all class file locations.
Loading classes with Composer mode¶
In Composer mode, the autoloader checks for (classmap and
information inside your extension's
composer.json. If you do not provide
any information, the autoloader falls back to the classmap autoloading like in
Dump the class loading information manually via
composer dumpautoload and
check that the autoload information is updated. Typically you would check
vendor/composer/ to hold files like
$ tree vendor/composer
Loading classes without Composer mode¶
This means, you did not install TYPO3 via a
require statement inside your
composer.json. It's a regular old-school install where the TYPO3 source
and the symlinks (
typo3/index.php) are setup manually.
In this case, every time you install an extension, the autoloader scans the whole extension directory for classes. No matter if they follow any convention at all. There is just one rule: put each class into its own file. This also means that there can only be a single class per file.
You can also explicitly configure autoloading in the ext_emconf.php.
typo3conf/autoload_classmap.php is a large array with a
mapping of classnames to their location on the disk:
// autoload_classmap.php @generated by TYPO3
$typo3InstallDir = \TYPO3\CMS\Core\Core\Environment::getPublicPath();
'Schnitzler\\Templavoila\\Clipboard\\Clipboard' => $typo3InstallDir . 'typo3conf/ext/templavoila/Classes/Clipboard/Clipboard.php',
'tx_templavoila_pi1' => $typo3InstallDir . 'typo3conf/ext/templavoila/Compatibility/class.tx_templavoila_pi1.php',
This method is failsafe unless the autoload information cannot be written. In
this case, check the Install Tool for warnings and make sure that
typo3temp/ is writable.
If your classes cannot be found, try the following approaches.
Dump the class loading information manually with the following command:
php typo3/sysext/core/bin/typo3 dumpautoload
If that command itself fails, please (manually) uninstall the extension and try reinstalling it (via the Extension Manager).
If you are still not lucky, the issue is definitely on your side and you should double check the write permissions on
If you didn't do so before, have a look at the PSR-4 standard. It defines very good rules for naming classes and the files they reside in. Really, read the specs and start using PSR-4 in your projects. It's unlikely that there will be any other more advanced standard in the near future in the PHP world. PSR-4 is the way to go and you should embrace it.
Even if you do not use Composer mode and the class mapping of the autoloader allows you to use whatever you want, stick to PSR-4. It's not only a very good standard to find classes, but it will also help organizing your code.
PSR-4 is all about namespaces. No matter if you like namespaces or not, use them. Namespaces exist since PHP 5.3, so you will be able to use them in any modern TYPO3 project due to the minimum PHP requirements of TYPO3 itself.
PSR-4 is a standard that has been developed by the PHP Framework Interop Group (FIG). PSR-4 is an advanced standard for autoloading php classes and replaces PSR-0. If you want to know more about the PHP FIG in general and PSR-4 in specific, please visit https://www.php-fig.org/psr/psr-4/.