The TYPO3 database contains all data of backend and frontend users and therefore special care must be taken not to grant unauthorized access.
Secure passwords and minimum access privileges with MySQL¶
If using MySQL, the privilege system authenticates a (database-)user who connects from the TYPO3 host (which is possibly on the same machine) and associates that user with privileges on a database. These privileges are for example: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, etc.
When creating this user, follow the guidelines for secure passwords. The name of the user should definitely not be
typo3, etc. You should create a database specific user with
limited privileges for accessing this database from TYPO3. Usually this
user does not require access to any other databases and the database
of your TYPO3 instance should usually only have one associated
MySQL and other database systems provide privileges that apply at different levels of operation. It depends on your individual system and setup which privileges the database user needs (SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE and some more are essential of course) but privileges like LOCK TABLES, FILE, PROCESS, CREATE USER, RELOAD, SHUTDOWN, etc. are in the context of administrative privileges and not required in most cases.
See the documentation of your database system on how to set up database users and access privileges.
Database not within web document root with SQLite¶
If using SQLite as underlying database, a database is stored in a single
file. In TYPO3, its default location is the var/sqlite path
of the instance which is derived from environment variable
TYPO3_PATH_APP. If that
variable is not set which is often the case in not Composer based instances, the database
file will end up in the web server accessible document root directory :file:`typo3conf/`!
In such a setup it is important to configure Web servers to not deliver
Disallow external access¶
The database server should only be reachable from the server that your TYPO3 installation is running on. Make sure to disable any access from outside of your server or network (settings in firewall rules) and/or do not bind the database server to a network interface.
If you are using MySQL, read the chapter Server Options in the manual and check for the "skip-networking" and "bind-address" options in particular.
Database administration tools¶
phpMyAdmin and similar tools intend to allow the administration of
MySQL database servers over the Web. Under certain circumstances, it
might be required to access the database "directly", during a project
development phase for example. Tools like
phpMyAdmin (also available
as a TYPO3 extension by the way) cause extra effort for ongoing
maintenance (regular updates of these tools are required to ensure a
minimum level of security). If they are not avoidable by any chance,
the standalone version with an additional web server's access
authentication (e.g. Apache's
.htaccess mechanism) should be used at
However, due to the fact that a properly configured TYPO3 system does not require direct access to the database for editors or TYPO3 integrators, those applications should not be used on a production site at all.